The mass media constantly “unwind” large-scale competitions to the level of the main events in the life of society. Nevertheless, modern sports should not be presented as a single phenomenon with one goal, functions and general patterns of development. Modern sport is many-sided and diverse. The system of sports includes such varieties as the mass, youth, school, student sports solving the problems of recovery and the formation of the sports culture of the younger generation.
Sport of the highest achievements (Olympic and professional sports) is aimed at achieving high sports results and victories. These species combine common functions: spectacular, political, economic.
Sport of the highest achievements transmits a special pattern of lifestyle, the way to achieve success, demonstrates high sports equipment, the ability to beat the opponent. For many viewers, this model becomes a model to follow, not only in sports, but also in other spheres of life. However, the sport of higher achievements has generated a large number of contradictions that do not allow modern sport to develop positively, often discredit it and form a negative attitude of people, especially parents, to sports activities. Increasingly, public opinion assesses modern sport as a dangerous area of activity for a person.
The most acute controversy in the development of sports in modern society is the myth that sport is almost the only and main factor in the preservation and promotion of health. No one disputes the prophylactic value of exercising. However, you must understand that this is only one of the factors that make up a healthy lifestyle. In addition to sports, human health is influenced by the ecological situation, the mode and quality of food, the presence of bad habits, the standard of living, heredity, etc.
Therefore, it is not necessary to directly link the state of health and sports. In addition, there are tragic cases that have occurred with outstanding young athletes due to injuries and high sports loads. It is enough to give an example of the tragic fate of Alexei Cherepanov, when the heart of a young and promising athlete stopped at a hockey match. The picture has already become familiar when athletes, skiers, and biathletes, after going the distance “dead”, fall on the track of the stadium or on the track.
Sport of higher achievements is associated with the risk and necessity of exposure to the maximum allowable physical exertion on the body. Unfortunately, due to a number of circumstances (the mood to win at any cost, doping), the athlete goes over the edge of what is permissible and damages his health and sometimes his opponent. Currently, the number of new sports, especially extreme ones, is rapidly increasing: mountain biking, quad bikes, freestyle, scooters and much more.
Extreme sports sometimes supplant classic sports such as skiing, athletics, and gymnastics. However, it is impossible to forbid a person to engage in any sport and to learn the possibilities of his own organism. Moreover, often in life we are faced with situations where only a full concentration of forces allows us to avoid danger. And the more physical strength a person has, the less loss of health he gets out of a difficult situation.
Sport helps to simulate problem situations and find ways out of them. Therefore, each person must decide what level of sporting achievements he should strive for. The controversy related to sports and health of an athlete can be resolved by improving sports equipment, competition rules, improving the material and technical equipment of sports facilities, preventing health, medical monitoring of athletes’ health, and improving the quality of professional coaching staff. However, the problem of “sport and health” remains unresolved.
The next contradiction in the field of sports of the highest achievements is that many sports have become rapidly “younger”. Record results are achieved by teenagers, almost children, for example, in such sports as rhythmic and artistic gymnastics, figure skating. In other sports, the age of winners also has a noticeable downward trend (O. Korbut, M. Filatova, L. Mukhina, T. Lepinski, Y. Lipnitskaya achieved the highest results at the age of 14).
It is clear that young athletes can win at competitions of the highest rank. However, the essence of the problem is that there is a forced training of a young athlete without taking into account the age indicators of his development. This problem is aggravated by the presence of a selection system for talented children, when not a sport for a child is selected, but a child for sport. Selection selection is a serious psychological stress for many children and parents, which often alienates the child from playing sports forever. The use of special technologies, “spent” on an adult contingent, without adapting them to the methods of youth sport, leads to a premature “pumping” of a young athlete, and sports longevity is out of the question.
This contradiction in the field of youth sports ultimately distorts the essence of sports, cripples athletes physically and morally. Another contradiction that seriously undermines the foundations of sports is generated by the system of contractual victories, which are organized in the hotel rooms of judges, in the offices of managers, that is, far from the gyms, playgrounds, and fields. The displacement of the competitiveness factor has acquired significant proportions, especially in team sports.
According to researchers, a considerable number of football and hockey championship matches are pre-sold. This, of course, affects the moral standards of athletes, as well as the entertainment of the sport. Therefore, we often see half-empty stands and disappointed fans. In professional sports, as well as in show business, big money is spinning. But the struggle for the “purity” of the sport, of course, must be waged. No less difficult situation in the supplement service of sports.
The use of doping, which began as early as the 1970s – 1980s, spread in all sports. The problem of doping is ambiguously perceived in society. Of course, in this way sport wins in entertainment, but loses much more in humanity. After all, subject to the use of doping, we are not talking about identifying the strongest, in this case there is a struggle between doctors, who can “pump up” the athlete most successfully. At present, it is hardly possible to resolve this problem, since in modern sport the tendencies of winning at any cost only intensify and develop.
Doping is not a private practice of sports doctors, but a well-designed system of scientific, methodological and medical support. At the same time, there is no doubt that a modern athlete experiences colossal training loads and his body is unable to recover quickly without the help of supplement agents. If you do not use supporting supplements, the athlete will not be able to train in modern volumes and given intensity regimes, and the negative effects of stress will lead to pathological changes in his body and mind.
Thus, the way to solve these and other social contradictions of modern sport is in strengthening the educational, scientific and culturological components of sports activities. The formation and intensive development of sports culture can significantly increase the potential of modern sports and form a positive public opinion, allowing to find new resources for the mass involvement of people in the sports movement.