The implementation of systematic medical observations of a huge number of people involved in fitness and sports, is the main task of sports medicine.
Goals of sports medicine:
• determination of health, physical development and
in accordance with this recommendation of rational means
and methods of physical education and sports training
• organization and implementation of regular medical
health surveillance of all persons involved
Recreational Physical Education (FC) and sports;
• identification of the most rational sanitary and hygiene
physical conditions of physical education and
system of events aimed at arranging
effect on a person in the process of occupations health-improving FC
• promoting the proper conduct of classes
equal FC and sports with persons of different ages and
gender, different occupations and with different health conditions
• promoting high efficiency of all
sports and recreational activities;
• scientific substantiation of the means and methods of physical
• development of new, most advanced methods of medical
observations of athletes, sanitary and hygiene
research, diagnosis, treatment and prevention
Denial of prepathological (including trauma) conditions in
The main sections of the work on SM:
• medical examination of persons engaged in health
body FC and sports;
• clinical examination of the leading contingents of athletes;
• medical and pedagogical observations;
• wellness, treatment and preventive measures
• sanitary and hygienic supervision of places and conditions
conducting sports activities and competitions;
• medical support of sports events and
mass species of FC;
• prevention of sports injuries.
11.2. Medical examinations of persons engaged in physical culture and sports
The purpose of the medical examination is admission to sports activities, a systematic study of the effects of these activities on physical development, health status and functional status of people involved in health-improving FC and sports, as well as determining their fitness.
Medical observations consist of primary, repeated and additional medical examinations.
Primary medical examinations are carried out for all persons starting health and fitness classes and sports. At the same time, the state of health, physical development and adaptability of an organism to dosed physical loads are determined. If during examination in the state of health and physical development, minor deviations are detected, then restrictions are introduced in the FC and sports classes, correction of the nature and mode of the sports training is recommended.
Repeated medical examinations set a goal – to determine the impact of regular health and fitness classes on sports, on health, physical development and functional capabilities of an athlete. During these examinations, the degree of changes in the functional state of the athlete’s body due to the dynamics of fitness is also determined.
Surveys of athletes are carried out at least 1 time per year, middle-aged and elderly people involved in health-improving FC, 2 times a year. Athletes who are at the dispensary observation, undergo regular surveys at least 4 times a year.
Additional medical examinations are aimed at addressing the issue of admission to the competition, as well as to training after illness (and injuries), long breaks in classes, with signs of fatigue, on the recommendation of coaches or at the request of an athlete. Additional examinations are also carried out for athletes who are allowed to practice, but have abnormalities in their health.
According to the results of the examination, the doctor draws a conclusion, which gives an assessment of physical development, health, functional status and degree of general fitness of an athlete. All students determine the medical group for classes in physical education classes. In addition, in conclusion, the doctor makes recommendations on the nature and mode of training, makes restrictions, and, if necessary, determines therapeutic and preventive measures, designates the period of re-medical examination.
The dispensary method of observing athletes is an active form of medical observation of regular athletes who train and compete in competitions and conduct year-round training. This method was used after the organization in the country of medical and physical dispensaries (VFD).
The main tasks of follow-up:
• health promotion and improved physical development
athletes, long preservation of their high dispute
• prevention and detection of early signs of violation
health, overwork, overtraining
• promoting sportsmanship and performance
to improve the method of training.
The dispensary observation is based on a dynamic study of physical development and health, as well as the effects on the body of sports activities and competitions.
Physical and physical training consultation. This is a form of work on the VC, which is used when treating healthy or a sick person in the VFD or medical advisory center located in the clinic.
The purpose of this consultation is to address issues related to physical education and sports or using their funds for treatment. In this case an in-depth examination can be carried out using functional tests. In some cases, consultation is given to the teacher or trainer, in others to the athlete, both during scheduled medical examinations and when visiting a doctor in order to obtain additional information on the physiology of physical activity, self-control, etc.
Medical and pedagogical observations (VNS) are studies conducted jointly by a doctor and a physical education teacher (trainer) in order to assess the effect on the body engaged in physical activity, to establish the level of adaptation to increasing training loads. Based on the data of the VPN, the physician must assess the degree of compliance of the training process with accepted hygienic and physiological norms. To do this, the doctor needs to know the content, organization, methods and conditions of the classes, the state of the students and their response to physical activity.
In the process VPN use the following methodical techniques.
Definition of occupation density. By timing the actions of one or two participants, the total time spent on the exercises is determined. Density of classes is defined as the ratio of time spent on exercises to the total time of classes (as a percentage). A professionally conducted lesson has a density of 60–70%.
The definition of the physiological “curve” lesson. A doctor, attending various stages of training, registers a heart rate (HR) or other physiological indicator and builds a graph showing its dynamics in the course of physical activity. Analyzing this “curve”, one can evaluate the effectiveness of the introductory part of the lesson, the intensity of physical activity in its main part, the duration of the final part and the degree of recoverability of the pulse by the end of the lesson.
Assessment of the degree of fatigue. It is carried out according to external signs of fatigue – the color of the skin, perspiration, accuracy of movements, etc., as well as the speed of recovery of the original heart rate after the end of the session.
With a properly constructed lesson, the excitability of the pulse that is permissible for a given contingent, its almost complete recoverability by the end of the lesson, the average degree of fatigue of the students are noted.
The effectiveness of the training process depends on how well the training means and their dosage are chosen in one lesson, micro- or mesocycle. In order to clarify these effects, it is customary to study the urgent, delayed and cumulative training effect.
Urgent training effect – changes that occur in the body directly during exercise and in the next period of rest.
Deferred training effect – changes noted in the late phases of recovery (for example, on the next day after class or a few days later).
Cumulative training effect – changes in the body that occur over a long period of training, as a result of the summation of the urgent and delayed effects of the total number of individual training sessions.
VPNs are carried out during milestone, ongoing and operational research.
Teachers, doctors and psychologists take part in the milestone complex studies, when the cumulative training effect for a certain period is assessed. The task of the doctor is to assess changes in the functional state of individual body systems, the overall performance of the body. Stage research is carried out every 2-3 months: at rest, during and after the exercise (with the help of a bicycle ergometer, treadmill, etc.).
In ongoing surveys assess the delayed training effect. The forms of organization of these observations may be different: a) every morning in the conditions of the training gathering or before the training sessions; b) daily in the morning and in the evening; c) at the beginning and end of one or two microcycles (in the morning or at any time before classes); d) the next day after class (in the morning or before the next workout). For the current control using the simplest methods of clinical and functional research –
one-time functional tests (20 squats, breath holding, etc.).
In operational studies, an urgent training effect is evaluated, i.e. changes in the body during exercise and in the next recovery period. The following forms of operational research are used: a) directly in a class (during the whole class, after individual exercises or after different parts of the class); b) before the training session and 20-30 minutes after it (at rest or with the use of an additional load); c) on the day of training in the morning and in the evening.
Methods VPN due to specific tasks and conditions of the survey. When studying the reaction of those involved in training loads, methods are used (taking into account the history) of assessing the external signs of fatigue and functional changes in the activity of various systems.
When conducting operational rapid control, taking into account the subjective sensations, there are three types of reaction to the training load: physiological, “borderline” and pathological (table 11.1).
Sanitary and hygienic control over the places and conditions of training sessions and competitions
Sanitary and hygienic conditions of employment and training largely determine the effect of exercise on the body of the student. The most advanced method of training will not have a positive result if classes are held in unsanitary conditions.
Sanitary and hygienic control consists of current and precautionary; It ensures the creation of favorable conditions for sports activities and competitions.
Current sanitary-hygienic control, monitoring the sanitary condition of sports facilities, meteorological conditions, the state of sports equipment, equipment, clothing, athletes’ shoes and protective equipment. Of great importance is the assessment of the epidemiological status of areas in the areas of competition or training camps.
In addition to the current sanitary control, carried out precautionary, which is entrusted to the state sanitary inspection. In the design and construction of sports facilities for consultation involved sports doctors.